Nstant more than time. In contrast, the percentages of spathes in Stage II and Stage IV differed over time, which suggests that the development of those stages might be prompted below particular environmental situations in Z. noltei. The production of seeds plus the capacity and time of germination of your cultured spathes didn’t differ among meadows, showing 34 of germination capability. These results recommend that Z. noltei meadows with the Ria de Aveiro lagoon can produce seedlings similarly and using a prospective of reproduction comparable to other European populations. Flowering effort of Z. noltei in Ria de Aveiro didn’t show spatio-temporal variations, ranging from 0-157 to a maximum of 6445 spathes m-2 . This variety is slightly greater than that discovered for Z. noltei Scaffold Library Screening Libraries inside the south of Portugal [19,32] and in the Mediterranean [33,34] but reduce than in other European regions further north to Ria the Aveiro . Latitudinal variations in the flowering work of Z. noltei appear to become as a result of truth that the southern populations were additional stable than the Northern Europe populations and usually do not have to recolonise the environment each year within the very same manner as these further north . On the other hand, the timing of flowering within the Z. noltei meadows of Ria de Aveiro, whichPlants 2021, ten,9 ofpersisted from June to November, was equivalent to that reported in the south of Portugal  and for European locations additional north from our study area [13,35] but longer than within the Mediterranean [33,34]. For that reason, these data could recommend that the timing of flowering in Z. noltei is strongly linked to seawater temperature, beginning when temperatures rise inside the location and persisting provided that warm temperatures stay, but are certainly not also extreme for the improvement of spathes, as reported inside the Mediterranean . However, in Ria de Aveiro, things besides temperature could have influenced the seagrass reproductive work because flowering in Z. noltei continued despite the fact that seawater temperature dropped to 14 C in November. Greater reproductive efforts and longer flowering periods in seagrass meadows are also indicators of tension due to disturbances inside the area, which can take place naturally or as outcome of anthropogenic activities . Seagrasses react with increased flowering under stressful conditions as an adaptation tactic to make sure the recolonisation of impacted places through the formation of seedbanks [15,38]. Given that, the Ria de Aveiro lagoon is below high anthropogenic influence, quite a few stressors could have influenced the flowering of Z. noltei in our study, explaining the similarity between the flowering work observed in Ria de Aveiro and also other stressed Z. noltei meadows of Portugal. For instance, shellfish and bait harvesting can extend the reproductive period and induce higher production of spathes in Z. noltei meadows  and we located traces of this activity along the complete Mira channel (Figure S1). Furthermore, a longer flowering period in Z. noltei can also be connected with sandy sediments [19,35]. Ria de Aveiro has historically been subjected to significant hydromorphological Bafilomycin C1 Purity & Documentation alterations which resulted in modifications from finer to sandier or coarser sediments inside the lagoon . Furthermore, inside the year of our study, dredging activities were initiated upstream of the Mira channel, resulting within the mobilisation of fine gravel and really coarse sand along the meadows (see Figure 3C ). However, the flowering effort of human-dominated Z. noltei mea.