In contains a zinc-binding domain, HEXXHXXGXXH, and this proteinase possessed proteolytic activity on fibrinogen and form IV collagen. Additionally, it injured cultivated artery endothelial cells. Aird et al.  described that the important contents of O. okinavensis venom weren’t metalloproteinases but serine-proteinases. In actual fact, several serine-proteinase fractions had been obtained throughout the purification course of action, as a result, the main symptoms of O. okinavensis envenomation may be blood coagulation disorder, edema and hypotension triggered by serine-proteinase. A little amount of hemorrhagic metalloproteinase in O. okinavensis venom might not possess severe effect alone; however, the blood coagulation disorder possibly increases hemorrhage when metalloproteinase coexists with serine-proteinase in crude venom. When the results with the cytotoxicity study making use of cultivated cells are examined together using the experimental final results of rubelase and rubelysin previously reported, it appears that the outcomes of your cytotoxicity study effectively reflect the impact of snake venom hemorrhagic metalloproteinase. Because there are now situations when animal experiments are complicated to carry out from a point of view from the prevention of cruelty to animals, this method may possibly become really beneficial for studying hemorrhage within the future. It can be essential to establish a method of cytotoxicity study employing a variety of hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic SVMPs. Author Contributions Yumiko Komori was accountable for experimental design and style, amino acid evaluation, toxicity test on cells and writing the manuscript; Eri Murakami for purification of protein and digested peptides, enzymeToxins 2014,assays, hemorrhagic assays and gel electrophoresis experiments; Kei-ichi Uchiya for MALDI-TOF mass GLP Receptor Compound spectrometry; Tunemasa Nonogaki for histopathological experiment; and Toshiaki Nikai for experimental style and writing the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References Tu, A.T. Rattlesnake Venom: Their Actions and Remedy, 1st ed.; Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1982. 2. Shannon, J.D.; Baramova, E.N.; Bjarnason, J.B.; Fox, J.W. Amino acid sequence of a Crotalus atrox venom metalloproteinase which cleaves sort IV collagen and gelatin. J. Biol. Chem. 1989, 264, 11575?1583. three. Takeya, H.; Onikura, A.; Nikai, T.; Sugihara, H.; Iwanaga, S. Principal NMDA Receptor Purity & Documentation structure of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase, HT-2, isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber. J. Biochem. 1990, 108, 711?19. 4. Gong, W.; Zhu, X.; Liu, S.; Teng, M.; Niu, L. Crystal structures of acutolysin A, a three-disulfide hemorrhagic zinc metalloproteinase from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus. J. Mol. Biol. 1998, 283, 657?68. 5. Nikai, T.; Mori, N.; Kishida, M.; Sugihara, H.; Tu, A.T. Isolation and biochemical characterization of hemorrhagic toxin f from the venom of Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1984, 231, 309?19. 6. Nikai, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Komori, Y.; Masuda, K.; Fox, J.W.; Sugihara, H. Primary structure and functional characterization of bilitoxin-1, a novel dimeric P-II snake venom metalloproteinase from Agkistrodon bilineatus venom. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2000, 378, six?5. 7. Fox, J.W.; Bjarnason, J.B. Atrolysins: Metalloproteinases from Crotalus atrox venom. Strategy. Enzymol. 1995, 248, 368?87. eight. Omori-Satoh, T.; Sadahiro, S. Resolution of your significant hemorrhagic component of Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom into two parts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1979, 580, 392?0.